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BHSc Library Research Guide

Explore library resources for the Bachelor of Health Sciences Program at McMaster

The Research Question

Write a research question by identifying your question's key concepts .

You can use the PICO(T)  or PS model, or any other model that is more appropriate for the nature of your research.

The PS Model: Qualitative Research

Qualitative Questions aim to discover meaning or gain an understanding of a phenomena.  

They ask about an individual's or population's experience of certain situations or circumstances.

The PS model is helpful for developing a strong qualitative research question:

P - Patient/Population

S- Situation

How do/does ___[P]____ experience _____[S]_____?

Ex. How do caregiver-spouses of Alzheimer patients experience placing their spouse in a nursing home?

PICO(T): Quantitative Research

Quantitative Questions aim to discover cause and effect relationships by comparing two or more individuals or groups based on differing outcomes associated with exposures or interventions, 

A quantitative approach can be formatted using the PICO(T) Model:


PICO question framework

Ex. In emergency room visitors, do hand sanitizing stations result in fewer in-hospital infections when compared with no hand sanitizing stations over a year-long pilot period?

What Have You Learned?